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Thylacella cubana (Banks) 1941
Size:2.5 mm. Range: This is the only species of the genus in the Western Hemisphere. It has been colleted around Brownsville, TX and penninsular Florida. Outside the U.S. it occurs in Cuba, Mexico,
Guatemala and Belize. Habitat: persistant dead leaves of various
plants, also on trunks and branches of trees.
Echmepteryx hageni (Packard) 1870
Size: ~ 3 mm. Range outside Texas: Eastern U.S. west to Arkansas Habitat: Bark
and leaves of
deciduous trees and on exposed outcrops. Males are rare
except at a few sites in the U.S.
Neolepolepis occidentalis (Mockford) 1955
Size: ~1.6 mm. Range outside Texas: Eastern
U.S.; less common in the southwest. Habitat:
Leaf litter. There is a
macropterous form of this species and I would be
delighted to encounter it.
Cerobasis guestfalica (Kolbe) 1880
Size:1.5 mm. Cosmopolitan. Habitat: Deciduous and evergreen trees and stone
outcrops. Identified by the anchor shaped mark on the frons. Most
populations are parthenogenetic.
Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein 1905
Size: ~ 1.2 mm. Range: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: Leaf litter,
granaries, bird and mammal nests. Winglets
with a distinctive reticulate pattern. The wings are easily dislodged.
This obligate parthenogen can become a pest in stored food products.
Trogium pulsatorium (Linnaeus) 1758
Size: ~ 1.7 mm. Range: Not common; found primarily in the
northeast; Habitat: Can occur in grain mills, bird nests, even
I have only found it on palms (Sabal
minor) at Aquarena Springs. Males and females look very much
Rhyopsocus bentonae Sommerman 1956
male 1.03 mm, female 1.18 mm Range:
throughout penninsular Florida, Atlantic Coast to Brunswick GA, around Gulf Coast to Texas, southern and southeastern Mexico. Habitat: dead leaves of palm,yucca and Typha. In this photo the male is on the left. I call this one the "Hobbit psocid".
Dorypteryx domestica (Smithers) 1958
Size: ~ 2 mm. Range outside Texas: records from central Europe, southern
England, Zimbabwe. It is only known from domestic situations such as basements. This rather odd looking psocid reminds me of Gollum from Lord of the Rings.
Image by Patrick-Emmanual Boulanger-Nadeau.
Psyllipsocus ramburii Selys-Longchamps 1872
Size: ~2 mm Range: cosmopolitan. Females micropterous or
macro- pterous. Found in caves, cellars and occasionally shaded outcrops. Records:Texas Memorial Museum.
Micropterous image by Matthew Bergeron; macropterous one by Stepen Luk.
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Lithoseopsis hellmani (Mockford & Gurney) 1956
Size:3.5 mm Range outide Texas: southern Arizona south to Central
America. - Habitat: Shaded limestone outcrops. This
species is part of a complex of closely related species
found from southern Texas. Known from female only.
Yes, there are liposcelidids with wings! In this genus mx4 is much wider than mx3. Females may be apteous or macropterous depending on species.
Size:1.7 mm Range: Winged females have been found in Hays Co. This
specimen was caught sweeping grass. This one is a possible ant mimic.
We hope to find apterous males and females of this species.
Embidopsocus laticeps Mockford 1963
Size: ~ 1.0 mm Range: Texas- Harris Co.; Gulf Coast Florida to
Texas and in
Bullock Co. Ga. Habitat: under bark of dead trees. Known from males,
macropterors and apterous females.
Photoghaph by Graham Montgomery.
Liposcelis Section I
Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky 1852
Size: ~ 1.1 mm Range: west Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, northeast toOttowa, Ontario. Habitat: Conifer and oak foilage, and ground litter beneath these trees, bird nests and domestic situations.
Image by George Opit.
Liposcelis deltachi Sommerman 1957
Size: 1.1 mm Range: Hays Co.; Southern and western Texas, southern New
southern Oklahoma; San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Habitat: Foliage of
junipers, pine, yuccas, mesquite and leaf litter.
Known from females only.
Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) 1907
Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas-Hays Co.; Midwest and southeastern U.S. to central Texas; fairly cosmopolitan. Habitat: Primarily domestic but also taken in leaf litter. Field collected
specimens (as in leaf litter) mostly tropical and subtropical. Known from male and female.
Liposcelis fusciceps Badonnel 1968
Size: ~ 1.2 mm Range: Texas Hays Co, and in Arizona Habitat: grasses and dead vines. Known from female only. Collected in Brazil in the nest of an ant, Camponotus rufipes
Dorsal view on the left and ventral on the right. Note "Head medium brown with a slight reddish tinge: palpi colorless".
Liposcelis hirsutoides Mockford 1978
Size: 1.1 mm. Range: central and south Texas and in central-penninsular
Florida. Habitat: woody vegetation and under bark. I find it
especially on lichen covered banches of Mesquite. Known from both
sexes but I have yet to photograph a male.
Liposcelis ornata Mockford 1978
Size: 1.2 mm. Range: Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas and in the
Mexican states of San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. Known from female only.
Habitat: Great variety of trees and shrubs. I have found in in leaf
litter and dead palm fronds.
Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard 1990
Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas- Hays Co.
Relatively cosmopolitan; recorded
from several U. S. states including Texas. Habitat: Domestic; also
found in bird nests, under bark and
sweeping grass. This species is known from both sexes.
Liposcelis pallida Mockford 1978
Size: ~ 1 mm. Range: Texas- Blanco Co.;
Known from the Davis Mts. of Texas
and Catalina Mts. of Arizona. The specimen pictured was collected at
Flat Creek (Blanco Co.). Habitat: Dead persistent leaves of yucca; leaf
litter. Known from both sexes.
Liposcelis Section II
Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel 1931
Size: ~ 1.0 mm Range: Texas- Hays Co.; Cosmopolitan
Habitat: under bark, bird nests, stored grain, old books,
chicken litter. Known only from females. If there is a classic
booklouse, this is it.
Nanopsocus oceanicus mac female
Macropterous females brown; apterous females creamy white; males (apterous) creamy white but with a reddish brown stripe along anterior margin of abdominal terga 2-7. This genus is
characterized by a foliate shaped hind tarsal claw on each foot.
Peritroctes bengalensis Thornton 1966
Size: 1.1 mm. Range: First recorded from the Botanical Gardens of
Calcutta, India by Ian W. B. Thornton and S. K. Wong, "Some
Psocoptera from West Bengal, India", Transactions of the Royal
Entomological Society of London, 118(1):1-21, 1966. Habitat: leaf
litter, dead palm frinds, dead persistent leaves.
I have a colony in my leaf litter/ dead palm frond habitat here in San Marcos, TX. I am not sure what the big picture is.
To the right is the macropterous
female (length 1.7 mm). In my
experience, this form is rarer than the apterous one. In this family,
the wings are held flat over the abdomen, not roof-like as in the
Mockford says that this individual from Gonzales Co. shows much more
patterning on the head than specimens in far south Texas.
The images on this row depict the macropterous form of Tapinella sp. Type 2
. These individuals possess ocelli while the apterous morphs do not.
Sphaeropsocus bicolor Mockford 2013
Size:0.7 mm Range: single site Habitat: leaf litter This species has not been found in Texas but it is so remarkable that I had to include it. This remarkable species was discovered by Tim King. "It is the first living species of its genus, known otherwise only from Sphaeropsocus kuenowii
Hagen, a fossil species from the Baltic amber (Eocene)." Mockford, E.L., A New species of Sphaeropsocus Hagen from south eastern U. S.: the first living species of its genus, Life: the Excitement of Biology 1(2): 100-111.
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Bertkauia crosbyana Chapman 1930
Size: ~ 1.7 mm Range: throughout eastern
Rocky Mts., northwest Washington state. Mexico: San Cristobal and
Chiapas. Habitat: woodland ground litter Males (very rare)
macropterous, femaes micropterous.
Stenocaecilius casarum (Badonnel) 1931
Size: ~ 3.5 mm
Range: outside Texas-
Gulf Coast from south Florida to the Rio Grande Valley. Wide range in
the tropics including Mexico, Guatemala & Venezuela. Habitat:
Living or dead palm foilage. With the exception of a single male taken in Guyana, this species consists only of females.
Valenzuela indicator Mockford 1969
Size: ~ 4 mm, Range outside Texas: Florida, Georgia, Cuba, Habitat: found on various trees including oaks, palms and
on Sapnish moss.
Images by Robert Zimlich.
Valenzuela manteri (Sommerman) 1943
Size: ~ 3 mm Range outside Texas: eastern U. S. records in Minnesota, Missouri and Nebraska. Habitat: dead leaves of cattail, corn and palmetto. This species was described by Kathryn M. Sommerman
in "Description and bionomics of Caecilius manteri
", Proc. Ent. Soc. of Washington, 45(2): 9-39, 1943 with marvelous illustrations. Males are rare in this species.
Valenzuela micanopi (Mockford) 1965
Size: male 3.0 mm, female 3.2 mm Range outside Texas: throughout Florida, southeast Alabama and on Bimini Island and the Bahamas. Habitat: dead leaves of Sabal
This is an image of the micropterous female by Jean Brodeur of Canada. This female morph looks very similar to the micropterous female of Valenzuela posticus
. Micropterous females of V. nadleri,
have dark antennae all the way to the tip. Both occur in leaf litte
Valenzuela posticus Banks 1914
Size:male 3-4 mm, micropterous female 2 mm. Range outside Texas- records from Florida, Illinois, Michigan and New York. Females either fully winged or microptreous. The micropterous V. nadleri
which looks very similar has uniformly dark antennae while those of V. posticus
are pale terminally.
Male image by Ken Allen, female image by John F. Carr.
Teliapsocus conterminus (Walsh) 1863
Size: 5.6 mm Range: Throughout most of U.S. and Canada, but absent from northern midwestern states. Habitat: Great variety of broad-leaf and coniferous trees and occasionally ground litter. Not known outside North America.
Male image by Patrick Coin.
Lachesillidae Ectopsocidae Peripsocidae Trichopsocidae Archipsocidae Pseudocaeciliidae
Lachesilla michiliensis Garcia Aldrete 1991
Size: ~ 1.5 mm Range: Outside Texas Mexico: Durango
State Habitat: under loose bark Known only from female. "This species is neotenic as indicated by the brachyptery, small oceli and almost complete absence of sensory fields on the paraprocts" Garcia Aldrete, A., "Lachesillidae from the Biosphere Reserve 'La Michilia", Durango and Surrounding Areas, Folia Entomologica Mexicana 81: 165-183, 1991.
photograph by Graham Montgomery
Lachesilla forcepeta Chapman 1930
Size: ~ 2.0 mm Range: Outside of Texas- throughout eastern U.S. west to Oklahoma and Kansas and the San Antonio area of Texas. Habitat:
conifers including Juniperus ashei
Lachesilla tectorum Badonnel 1931
Size: 2.5 mm Range: outside Texas- Gulf coast Florida to Texas Mexico:
Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon Habitat: dead leaves of palm
and tall grasses Known from female only.
Lachesilla nita Sommerman 1946
Size: 2.5 mm. Range: Gulf Coast Georgia to Texas, also in Mexico,
Beliize, Guatemala, and Panama. Habitat: Found on cabbage palm, various oaks, Eleagnus and other shrubs. Note the characteristic diffuse spot in each cell from R3, R5, M1, M2, M3.
Lachesilla sulcata Garcia Aldrete 1986
Size: ~ 2.0 mm Range: Outside Texas- Gulf states from Texas to
Florida. Mexico: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Chiapas. Habitat: native
grass.The male of this species was only recently been described
(Garcia Aldrete & Mockford "Reappraisal of Species Group Patzunensis" Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 113(4): 417-425, 2011.
Ectopsocus meridionalis Ribaga 1904
Size:2.4 mm Range outsie Texas: throughout eastern U.S. south to Florida; central Mexico to Chile, southern Europe, Africa and Japan. Habitat: persistent dead leaves. Known only from female.
In this species, the males are micropterous and the females are either macropterous or micropterous. The tiny male has a dark clunial comb (visible in a dissecting microscope) which identifies it as mature. I once observed a male approaching a female and vibrating his body rhythmically as a prelude to courtship. This species is likely very common throughout Texas.
The barchypterous form of this species is shown to the right. I do not find this form in central Texas but did record them from Austin Co.
Peripsocus subfasciatus (Rambur) 1842
Size: ~ 2.7 Range: Outside Texas - eastern U.S., west to Minnesota and Arkansas, Pacific Coast from San Francisco Bay to British Columbia. Habitat: branches of broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shaded stone outcrops. Male virtually absent except in Washington state and Vancouver, British Columbia.
Peripsocus minimus Mockford 1971
Size: ~ 2.0 mm Range: Outside Texas- southern Illinois
southwestward to Missoiri, Arkansas and central Texas Habitat:
foliage of Juniperus virginiana
and Juniperus ashei
Size: male: ~ 2.2 mm, female ~ 1.5 mm Range: Habitat: Lichen
covered branches of Quercus
and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana
). This is an un-described species in which the female is micropterous.
Trichopsocus dalii (McLachlan) 1867
Size: ~ 2.8 mm Range: outside Texas- this introduced species is found
in states on the Gulf and Atlantic coast of the U.S. and in the Atlantic and Mediteranean coast of Europe and North Africa Habitat: branches of braod leaf trees like citrus, bay, Ligustrum
Archipsocus specimens are found along the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas and in Mexico. They can occur in Texas as far inland as Travis Co. I have not yet identified this species. These specimens were found at Palmetto State Park. There are three described species which
might occur on the Texas coast: Archipsocus floridanus
, A. gurneyi A. nomas
. The webbing from these psocids often covers entire tree trunks and causes a media sensation.
Pseudocaecilius citricola (Ashmead) 1879
Size: 2.8 mm Range: Outside Texas, occurs throughout Florida, on the Alabama coast, pan-tropical; is even recorded on the Galapagos Islands; Habitat: living leaves of citrus, evergreen oaks, palms
and other trees. Known from female only.
Aaroniella badonneli (Danks) 1950
Size: ~ 3 mm Range: east Texas, occurs throughout much of the eastern U. S.and north to Ontario, the soviet state of Georgia and the Azores. Habitat: twigs and lichen covered branches of a variety of trees and shrubs. Known only from female.
Blaste longipennis (Banks) 1918
Size: ~ 5 mm. Range outside Texas: Yellowstone Natonal Park south to
Chiricahua Mountainsof Arizona. Habitat: Collected on dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobuim vaginatum
Cerastipsocus venosus (Burmeister) 1839
Size: male ~ 6 mm female 8mm Range outside Texas - Maine south to southern Florida; south to Mexico. Habitat: Trunks and brances of broad leaf trees and conifers. Pterostigma of males is dark while those of females are white.
Images by Robert Zimlich.
Cerastipsocus trifasciatus (Provancher) 1876
Size: ~ 6 mm. Range outside Texas: Southestern U.S. continuing through Arkansas to Arizona. Also in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Columbia. Habitat: Tree trunks and branches and rock outcrops.
Image by William Geoghegan.
Metylophorus novaescotiae (Walker) 1853
Size: 6-7 mm Range outside Texas: Nova Scotia and coastal Maine to Florida, west to Minnesota. Habitat: Branches of broad-leaf trees and shrubs. Also occurs in Mexico.
Images by Tom Murray.
Hyalopsocus striatus (Walker) 1853
Size: 5.3 Range outside Texas: Throughout northeastern U.S. and southeast Canada. Occurs spottily in western states. Habitat: Juniperous ashei
This species is characterized by the extensive pigment in cells Cu2
and IA in the forewing.
Indiopsocus lacteus Mockford & Young 2015
Size: ~ 3.9 Range: endemic to Texas Hill Country. Habitat: lower
bare limbs of living Juniperus ashei
. Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.
Indiopsocus palmatus Mockford & Young 2015
Size: ~ 3.8 Range : Apparently a Texas endemic. Habitat: braodleaf trees like Quercus virginiana, Celtis reticulata Ulmus crassifolia and Acacia farnesiana.
Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.