Suborder Trogiomorpha Suborder Troctomorpha Suborder Psocomorpha
Size: 2.5 mm Range: This is the only species of the genus in the Western Hemisphere. It has been colleted around Brownsville, TX and penninsular Florida. Outside the U.S. it occurs in Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Habitat: persistant dead leaves of various plants, also on trunks and branches of trees.
Size: ~ 1.2 mm. Range: Cosmopolitan. Habitat: Leaf litter, granaries, bird and mammal nests. Winglets with a distinctive reticulate pattern. The wings are easily dislodged. This obligate parthenogen can become a pest in stored food products.
Size: ~ 1.7 mm. Range: Not common; found primarily in the northeast; Habitat: Can occur in grain mills, bird nests, even herbaria. I have only found it on palms (Sabal minor) at Aquarena Springs. Males and females look very much alike.
male 1.03 mm, female 1.18 mm Range: throughout penninsular Florida, Atlantic Coast to Brunswick GA, around Gulf Coast to Texas, southern and southeastern Mexico. Habitat: dead leaves of palm,yucca and Typha. In this photo the male is on the left. I call this one the "Hobbit psocid".
Size: 1.4 mm. Range: Atlantic Coastal Plain, Gulf Coast from Florida to south Texas, along Mississippi embankment to southern Illinois. Habitat: dead persistent leaves, conifer foilage and leaf litter. Note the large terminal segment of the maxillary palps.
Size: ~ 2 mm. Range outside Texas: records from central Europe, southern England, Zimbabwe. It is only known from domestic situations such as basements. This rather odd lookng psocid reminds me of Gollum from Lord of the Rings.
Size: 1.2 - 1.5 mm. Range outside Texas: Records from Arizona and California. Habitat: Found in leaf litter, dead yucca leaves and dead palm leaves. All are brachypterous. Named for Indian tribe from type locality.
Size: ~2 mm Range: cosmopolitan. Females micropterous or
macro- pterous. Found in caves, cellars and occasionally shaded outcrops. Records:Texas Memorial Museum.
Micropterous image by Matthew Bergeron; macropterous one by Stepen Luk.
Suborder Troctomorphareturn to top
Size: 3.5 mm Range outide Texas: southern Arizona south to Central America. - Habitat: Shaded limestone outcrops. This species is part of a complex of closely related species found from southern Texas. Known from female only.
Yes, there are liposcelidids with wings! In this genus mx4 is much wider than mx3. Females may be apteous or macropterous depending on species.
Size:1.7 mm Range: Winged females have been found in Hays Co. This specimen was caught sweeping grass. This one is a possible ant mimic. We hope to find apterous males and females of this species.
Size: ~ 1.0 mm Range: Texas- Harris Co.; Gulf Coast Florida to
Texas and in
Bullock Co. Ga. Habitat: under bark of dead trees. Known from males,
macropterors and apterous females.
Photoghaph by Graham Montgomery
Size: ~ 1.1 mm Range: west Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, northeast toOttowa, Ontario. Habitat: Conifer and oak foilage, and ground litter beneath these trees, bird nests and domestic situations.
Image by George Opit.
Size: 1.1 mm Range: Hays Co.; Southern and western Texas, southern New Mexico, southern Oklahoma; San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Habitat: Foliage of junipers, pine, yuccas, mesquite and leaf litter. Known from females only.
Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas-Hays Co.; Midwest and southeastern U.S. to central Texas; fairly cosmopolitan. Habitat: Primarily domestic but also taken in leaf litter. Field collected specimens (as in leaf litter) mostly tropical and subtropical. Known from male and female.
Size: 1.1 mm. Range: central and south Texas and in central-penninsular Florida. Habitat: woody vegetation and under bark. I find it especially on lichen covered banches of Mesquite. Known from both sexes but I have yet to photograph a male.
Size: 1.2 mm. Range: Gulf Coast from Florida to Texas and in the Mexican states of San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. Known from female only. Habitat: Great variety of trees and shrubs. I have found in in leaf litter and dead palm fronds.
Size: ~ 1.1 mm. Range: Texas- Hays Co. Relatively cosmopolitan; recorded from several U. S. states including Texas. Habitat: Domestic; also found in bird nests, under bark and sweeping grass. This species is known from both sexes.
Size: ~ 1 mm. Range: Texas- Blanco Co.; Known from the Davis Mts. of Texas and Catalina Mts. of Arizona. The specimen pictured was collected at Flat Creek (Blanco Co.). Habitat: Dead persistent leaves of yucca; leaf litter. Known from both sexes.
Size: ~ macropterous female , 1.5 mm., apteous female 1.0 mm. Range: southeastern U. S. north to Illinois; also Mexico, Central America, West Indies, West and Central Africa, Japan and South Pacific Islands . Habitat: Occurs on dead leaves of palms, bamboos and grasses.
Macropterous females brown;apterous females creamy white; males (apterous) creamy white but with a reddish brown stripe along anterior margin of abdominal terga 2-7. This genus is characterized by a foliate shaped hind tarsal claw on each foot.
Size: 1.1 mm. Range: First recorded from the Botanical Gardens of
Calcutta, India by Ian W. B. Thornton and S. K. Wong, "Some
Psocoptera from West Bengal, India", Transactions of the Royal
Entomological Society of London, 118(1):1-21, 1966. Habitat: leaf
litter, dead palm frinds, dead persistent leaves.
I have a colony in my leaf litter/ dead palm frond habitat here in San Marcos, TX. I am not sure what the big picture is.
To the left is the macropterous female (length 1.7 mm). In my experience, this form is rarer than the apterous one. In this family, the wings are held flat over the abdomen, not roof-like as in the Psocomorpha. Dr. Mockford says that this individual from Gonzales Co. shows much more patterning on the head than specimens in far south Texas.
Size: male ~ 1.1 mm, female ~ 1.3 mm Range: unknown Habitat: Leaf litter This un-described species lacks the backwards "U" shaped marks along the lateral edge of the abdomen. This species often occurs with Tapinella maculata.
The images on this row depict the macropterous form of Tapinella sp. Type 2. These individuals possess ocelli while the apterous morphs do not.
Size: 0.7 mm Range: single site Habitat: leaf litter This species has not been found in Texas but it is so remarkable that I had to include it. "It is the first living species of its genus, known otherwise only from Sphaeropsocus kuenowii Hagen, a fossil species from the Baltic amber (Eocene)." Mockford, E.L., A New species of Sphaeropsocus Hagen from south eastern U. S.: the first living species of its genus, Life: the Excitement of Biology 1(2): 100-111.
Suborder Psocomorphareturn to top
Size: ~ 1.7 mm Range: throughout eastern U.S., southern Rocky Mts., northwest Washington state. Mexico: San Cristobal and Chiapas. Habitat: woodland ground litter Males (very rare) macropterous, femaes micropterous.
Size: ~ 3.5 mm Range: outside Texas- Gulf Coast from south Florida to the Rio Grande Valley. Wide range in the tropics including Mexico, Guatemala & Venezuela. Habitat: Living or dead palm foilage. With the exception of a single male taken in Guyana, this species consists only of females.
Size: 3.6 mm, Range outside Texas: eastern U. S., northern Pacific Coast, also Europe, Canary Islands, Bermuda, and Mexico. Habitat: Foilage of broadleaf trees. Males are scarce throughout most of the range. Populations which have males may represent a sibling species (Mockford, 1993).
Size: ~ 3 mm Range outside Texas: eastern U. S. records in Minnesota, Missouri and Nebraska. Habitat: dead leaves of cattail, corn and palmetto. This species was described by Kathryn M. Sommerman in "Description and bionomics of Caecilius manteri", Proc. Ent. Soc. of Washington, 45(2): 9-39, 1943 with marvelous illustrations. Males are rare in this species.
Size: male 2.6 mm, female 2.7 mm. Range: eastern US, west to Wisconsin and Missouri,also SE Canada. Recent records extend range westward. Habitat: leaf litter. Females dimorphic- macropterous and micropterous.
This is an image of the micropterous female by Jean Brodeur of Canada. This female morph looks very similar to the micropterous female of Valenzuela posticus. Micropterous females of V. nadleri, however, have dark antennae all the way to the tip. Both occur in leaf litte
Size: ~3.8 mm Range: Texas Gulf Coast. This non-native species was apparently introduced along both coasts sometime in the early 19th century. Habitat: Foilage of braodleaf deciduous and evergreen trees.
Size: ~ 3.5 mm Range outside Texas: eastern U. S. west to Missouri; eastern Canada and Pacific coast from British Columbia south to northern Califorina. There are closely related species in Mexico. Habitat: Variety of broad-leaf trees including Magnolia.
Size: 5.6 mm
Range: Throughout most of U.S. and Canada, but absent from northern
midwestern states. Habitat: Great variety of broad-leaf and coniferous
trees and occasionally ground litter. Not known outside North America.
Male image by Patrick Coin.
Size: ~ 1.5 mm Range: Outside Texas Mexico: Durango State Habitat: under loose bark Known only from female. "This species is neotenic as indicated by the brachyptery, small oceli and almost complete absence of sensory fields on the paraprocts" Garcia Aldrete, A., "Lachesillidae from the Biosphere Reserve 'La Michilia", Durango and Surrounding Areas, Folia Entomologica Mexicana 81: 165-183, 1991.
photograph by Graham Montgomery
Size: 2.5 mm. Range: This species has been recorded from most of the U.S., nearly cosmopolitan elsewhere. Habitat: Found on grasses, dead persistent leaves, dried grain and occcasionally conifers. It is easily transported in human commerce and can become a pest of stored grain.
Size: ~ 1.7 mm Range: Outside Texas- Mexico: Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Yucatan; Habitat: persistent dried leaves of native grasses. This species belongs to the Rena complex in which the male epiproct is extremely long and narrow.
Size: 2.5 mm. Range: Gulf Coast Georgia to Texas, also in Mexico, Beliize, Guatemala, and Panama. Habitat: Found on cabbage palm, various oaks, Eleagnus and other shrubs. Note the characteristic diffuse spot in each cell from R3, R5, M1, M2, M3.
Size: ~ 2.0 mm Range: Outside Texas- Gulf states from Texas to Florida. Mexico: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Chiapas. Habitat: native grass.The male of this species was only recently been described (Garcia Aldrete & Mockford "Reappraisal of Species Group Patzunensis" Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 113(4): 417-425, 2011.
In this species, the males are micropterous and the females are either macropterous or micropterous. The tiny male has a dark clunial comb (visible in a dissecting microscope) which identifies it as mature. I once observed a male approaching a female and vibrating his body rhythmically as a prelude to courtship. This species is likely very common throughout Texas.
Size: ~ 2.7 Range: Outside Texas - eastern U.S., west to Minnesota and Arkansas, Pacific Coast from San Francisco Bay to British Columbia. Habitat: branches of broadleaf and coniferous trees and shaded stone outcrops. Male virtually absent except in Washington state and Vancouver, British Columbia.
Size: male: ~ 2.2 mm, female ~ 1.5 mm Range: Habitat: Lichen covered branches of Quercus virginiana and Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana). This is an un-described species in which the female is micropterous.
Size: ~ 2.8 mm Range: outside Texas- this introduced species is found in states on the Gulf and Atlantic coast of the U.S. and in the Atlantic and Mediteranean coast of Europe and North Africa Habitat: branches of braod leaf trees like citrus, bay, Ligustrum and Ilex.
Archipsocus specimens are found along the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas and in Mexico. They can occur in Texas as far inland as Travis Co. I have not yet identified this species. These specimens were found at Palmetto State Park. There are three described species which might occur on the Texas coast: Archipsocus floridanus, A. gurneyi A. nomas. The webbing from these psocids often covers entire tree trunks and causes a media sensation.
Size: 2.8 mm Range: Outside Texas, occurs throughout Florida, on the Alabama coast, pan-tropical; is even recorded on the Galapagos Islands; Habitat: living leaves of citrus, evergreen oaks, palms and other trees. Known from female only.
Size: ~ 3 mm. Range outside Texas: Non native. Found South Carolina to Florida along coastal plain to Texas; Oregon as an introduction from Japan. Native to Southeast Asia and many Pacific Islands. Habitat: Forest leaf litter.
Size: 3.5 mm. Range: Gulf Coast from Alabama to Brownsville, Texas then north to Refurio. Habitat: branches of oaks and dead vines. Known only from the male. I found females at Palm Harbor, TX. No published description yet of female.
Size: male ~ 6 mm female 8mm Range outside Texas - Maine south to southern Florida; south to Mexico. Habitat: Trunks and brances of broad leaf trees and conifers. Pterostigma of males id dark while those of females are white.
Images by Robert Zimlich.
Size: ~ 6 mm. Range outside Texas: Southestern U.S. continuing through Arkansas to Arizona. Also in Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and Columbia. Habitat: Tree trunks and branches and rock outcrops.
Image by William Geoghegan.
Size: male ~5.4 mm, female ~5.6 mm Range: Habitat: Wide variety of braodleaf and coniferous trees; usually on dead branches encrusted with lichen.
Size:5.3 Range outside Texas: Throughout northeastern U.S. and southeast Canada. Occurs spottily in western states. Habitat: Juniperous ashei This species is characterized by the extensive pigment in cells Cu2 and IA in the forewing.
Size: ~ 3.9 mm Range Outside Texas -eastern U.S. from northern Minnesota south to west Florida, west of the Mississippi it occurs spotily to Wyoming, Colorado and Texas; also occurs in Mexico Habitat: trunks and branches of braod-leaf and conifer trees.
Size: ~ 3.6 Range Outside Texas - Oklahoma, New York, south to Kentucky; central Texas is probably at the western end of the range for this species Habitat: dead branches of broad-leaf trees; my specimens on live oak and ashe juniper.
Size: ~ 3.8 Range : Apparently a Texas endemic. Habitat: braodleaf trees like Quercus virginiana, Celtis reticulata Ulmus crassifolia and Acacia farnesiana. Recently described in Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 141:233-251.
Size: ~ 4.3 mm Range outside Texas- unknown Habitat: lichen covered branches of live oak, Mesquite, Ashe juniper and cedar elm In my humble opinion, this un-described species is a beautiful psocid! Don't you agree? This species is placed in a "holding" genus until further study.
Size: male 4.7 mm female 5.9 mm Range: Outside Texas - Washington D.C. south to Florida, west to Indiana,Arkansas. Inhabits shaded stone outcrops and tree trunks. Dr. Mockford has expressed the need for this genus to be revised.